First view: 128 qubit Rainier chip

Here is a picture of a 128 qubit Rainier chip in the process of being wirebonded. More to follow.

D-Wave Rainier C4 quantum processor

18 thoughts on “First view: 128 qubit Rainier chip

  1. Great work guys!

    My field isn’t quantum computing but cognitive science. Now, without getting ‘weird’ on me, can you imagine any applications of adiabatic quantum computing to cognitive science?

  2. Matthew: Depends how broadly your definition of cognitive science goes, but if it includes machine learning, bayesian inference type calculations and pattern recognition, then yes absolutely.

  3. This is an adiabatic quantum chip. AFAIK, nobody quite knows how adiabatic quantum computing relates to the regular quantum computing, so what exactly does the “128-qubit” claim means?

    If it means that the computational power of this chip is equivalent to the 128-qubit canonical quantum computer, then this is the end of public-key cryptography as we know it (at least the RSA and DSA algorithms and their derivations, and generally anything which relies on the factoring problem), because this will bring most currently used public/private keys into the realm of practical brute-force cracking, as I understand it. This wouldn’t render NP problems P, but it would cut down the exponential factor by *a lot*.

    I don’t see this happening or being discussed. The conclusion seems to be that “128-bit” here doesn’t mean the same thing it would mean in canonical quantum computer. is that correct?

  4. Could DWAVE develop a Quantum image analysis algorithm to compare microarray images via cell phones? Remote diagnosis of disease using microarrays.

    http://arxiv.org/abs/0804.4457

    Google is using DWAVE to build Training classifiers, Microarray clustering?

    http://videolectures.net/opt08_neven_tabcwt/

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Binary_classification

    http://benfry.com/clustering

    Could Cell Profiler be adapted to DWAVE technology?

    http://www.cellprofiler.org/

    Could DWAVE help develop a cell phone that reads disease microarrays? Diagnose disease fast and cheaply in the field.
    Could DWAVE/Microsoft/Gates Foundation build software for cell phone microscope to transmit encrypted microarray analysis?
    Field diagnosis of disease through cell phones.
    Could DWAVE work with Dr. Srinivas at IIIT (srinivas@iiit.net ) in India to implement Global Health Profiler (GHP)?
    Could DWAVE build a GHP simulation for students? A cell phone kit for students?

    http://www.cnn.com/2009/TECH/03/30/doctors.second.life/

    Aydogan Ozcan of UCLA built cell phone microscope.

    http://www.cnn.com/2009/TECH/02/03/medical.imaging.device/index.html

    GHP Cartoon:

    http://scratch.mit.edu/projects/GeneMachine/389166

    Microsoft is developing a cell phone for telemedicine in India. Could Oracle build GHP database?

    http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/collaboration/papers/hyperbad.pdf

    CELL PHONE Microscope – Image analysis
    Could this cell phone microscope be adapted to genomic chips for field sampling?
    Cell phone adapted for blood analysis:

    http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/multimedia/2008/12/gallery_microscope_phone

    http://science.slashdot.org/article.pl?sid=08%2F12%2F20%2F2012230&from=rss

    Could Greene/HIV chip be adapted to cell phone microscope? Other microarrays?

    http://www.mailman.hs.columbia.edu/news/Lipkin_GreeneChip.html

    MATLAB is now being used in Cell Profiler to process images.

    http://www.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/fileexchange/9386

    http://amath.colorado.edu/courses/4720/2000Spr/Labs/Worksheets/Matlab_tutorial/matlabimpr.html

    Microarray analysis using cell profiler? Cancer microarray.http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2407/6/250
    Los Alamos uses MYCIN for automated DNA diagnostics.
    MYCIN blood analysis expert system allows doctors to diagnose disease cooperatively. MYCIN was the combination of thousands of doctor’s diagnosis.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mycin

    This cell phone blood analysis tool should be connected to a MYCIN expert system. My thesis used a MYCIN like AI to reassemble genomes. Eventually a second step would be to use microarrays to analyze the DNA and proteins in the sample. How would microarrays be analyzed via cell phone? A cute SciFi book “Galapagos” by Kurt Vonnegut describes an AI like this. A Dwave Quantum supercomputer could use Grover’s Algorithm to analyze all past blood samples to make a match. The phone based health care system could then be used world wide to diagnose disease. Costs for health care would drop quickly as diagnosis became cheap.
    We also used genetic algorithms to reassemble contigs at Los Alamos. The MYCIN model was used to allow scientists to collaborate on rule sets for DNA assembly.
    However the field of genetic analysis has forged ahead. Craig Venters work with shotgun cloning has largely eclipsed my work. His use of fifteen redundant sequence coverages and computer reassembly of the redundant DNA strings allowed Celera corporation to beat the US Human Genome project. It also made him rich. See how he is now rewriting evolutionary theory by scanning the oceans of the world for genes.

    http://collections.plos.org/plosbiology/gos-2007.php

    New Genome Analysis tools will revolutionize Medicine.
    http://www.pacificbiosciences.com/index.php (view 4 min SMRT Tech video) $100 genomes
    Add a quantum computer http://www.dwavesys.com/index.php?page=bioinformatics and Grover’s algorithm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grover's_algorithm and we could diagnose disease using the gene universe.
    Huntingtons disease proteins discovered with comparative genomics.http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?id=protein-interaction-huntingtons-disease

    http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1088934

    Could microarray and genome databases be searched exhaustively using Grover’s Algorithm on Dwave systems?
    Could a global health care network use cell phone microarrays for automated blood diagnostics?
    A simulation could follow a doctor diagnosing a disease using the cell phone and microarray to query an expert system.
    Microarrays are DNA or protein chips.
    They analyze samples at molecular level. They can be read with optical microscopes.
    Many vendors sell the chips but you have to buy optical readers to read the chips.
    Examples below are commercial high resolution scanners.

    http://www.affymetrix.com/products_services/instruments/specific/scanner_3000.affx

    http://www.chem.agilent.com/EN-US/PRODUCTS/INSTRUMENTS/DNAMICROARRAYS/DNAMICROARRAYSCANNER/Pages/default.aspx

    While they are useful in drug discovery and research they are too expensive for field sampling.
    How to make your own microarrays:

    http://cmgm.stanford.edu/pbrown/mguide/index.html

    http://brownlab.stanford.edu/

    How to calibrate:

    http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=2447521

    Could Qualcomm/Microsoft build a computer simulation for microarray chips that help to build and calibrate them under field conditions? This is the most difficult part of using microarrays in the field. The biggest barrier to automated remote diagnosis using microarrays is in designing systems to prep and load the samples to the microarray as well as choosing a microarray per client.

    The cell phone image analysis and the database search for disease images will be much easier.

    But how do microarrays perform under field conditions (heat, moisture,lighting, etc.)?
    Can they be designed for unique markets? HIV, Colon cancer, Breast cancer?

    Could they be used with other technologies? Proteus ingestible pill/chip? Qualcomm is working on Proteus pill.

    http://scratch.mit.edu/projects/GeneMachine/389166

    http://www.technologyreview.com/biotech/20434/

    http://www.proteusbiomed.com/

    Example: Colonoscopy replacement (80 million US baby boomers, 500 mill. China, India?)

    Buy pill/chip and microarray at pharmacy.

    Take the pill/chip each month.
    The pill/chip analyses the colon for blood.
    Pill calls the patient via cell phone warning of blood in stool.
    A microarray sample is analyzed via cell phone to confirm diagnosis.
    Patient gets colonoscopy only if polyps bleed.
    The potential is enormous. Only 50% of 50+ age have colonoscopy.

    http://www.eng.dieba.unibo.it/DIEBAEN/Research/ProjectsAndActivities/Colon_cancer.htm

    Other examples would include monitoring AIDS patients for secondary infections (TB),T Cell treatments, etc.

    http://www.finddiagnostics.org

    http://www.dfadx.org/

    I have attached some sample processing software I created for students.
    Teenage girls were fascinated in how a cell phone/microarray could help women with health issues.
    Could Unicef build a simulation game of rural hospitals in the third world? Level 4 Virus Hunters has good examples.

    http://www.amazon.com/Level-4-Virus-Hunters-CDC/dp/1570362777

    Students in the US and other developed countries could try and manage the virtual hospital in Pakistan, Africa, etc.
    This rural hospital could also be used to train Volunteers headed to underdeveloped countries?
    Second Life could provide a build it yourself model Unicef volunteers could update after returning form duty.
    Example:
    Food Aid is rushed to developing area in Africa to prevent starvation.
    Bags of food wait in tents as Lassa virus infected rats crawl and urinate on rice and corn.
    Urine then enters food supply starting a Lassa epidemic.
    The rural hospital has only a few syringes. The doctor uses them to treat patients and does not clean them.
    He inadvertently spreads Lassa, Hepatitis, HIV.
    The student must diagnose using the GreeneChip microarray and triage patients while using proper disease barriers to survive. The student/volunteer will learn proper rural medicine techniques. Developed kids gain interest in problems for other kids.

    http://www.cnn.com/2009/TECH/03/30/doctors.second.life/

    This simulation could educate donors and unicef volunteers.

    How about a cell phone that reads pap smears in the field? Cell Profiler via phone.

    http://www.groundsforhealth.org/

    http://www.threecupsoftea.com/

    info@ikat.org (Central Asia Institute – Greg Mortenson (Nurse/Author))

    I recently used the attached software for an High School AP biology class in Santa Fe, NM.

    Building Microarray Simulations – Shows how to build a simple Microarray animation. See attached word document.

    BRCA1_gene_network – This program uses a pubmed generated diagram and animates network edges.
    BRCA1 animation relates well to the breast cancer microarray at Davidson.edu.
    Excellent breast cancer microarray web/video tutorial:

    http://gcat.davidson.edu/Pirelli/index.htm

    Cervical cancer is now now being diagnosed with microarrays.

    http://clincancerres.aacrjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/9/15/5486

    I also am using valence like genomics relationship diagrams to represent cancer gene networks.

    http://benfry.com/valence

    http://benfry.com/genomevalence

    http://vis.cs.ucdavis.edu/~ogawa/codeswarm/

    Let me know if you need more sample code.

    I worked in the Peace Corps in South America on womens health and AIDS.(1970 – 80s)
    I later worked for U of Az and UNM nursing programs.(1980’s)
    I developed prenatal/STD software for U of Az. Student Health and Nursing program.
    I adapted software for use at UNM Gallup and the Navajo reservation.
    I then completed thesis at Los Alamos National Lab on Computer Assisted Mapping of Human Genome and HIV.(1990)
    I worked on the Genbank, Human Genome, and HIV databases
    I now manage large Oracle databases for the State of NM. Some relate to health.

    Henry Brown
    hbrown@sisna.com
    505 795-3680

  5. Hi Victor,

    Just as in classical computing, “bit” means two different but related things: (a) an abstract unit of information, (b) a physical device that is the medium for that unit of information.

    In these chips, there are 128 physical devices, each of which acts as a quantum two level system (ie a qubit). You can think of each device as a loop of metal (niobium) where the two states correspond to current circulating clockwise (binary zero) or counter-clockwise (binary one) around the loop.

    The architecture of the chip is similar at a high level to the one described in this paper: http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0211152 . It is a special purpose processor designed solely to enable a class of quantum algorithms called adiabatic quantum optimization algorithms. The problem natively solved in hardware is a form of Ising model more commonly known in the computer science community as quadratic unconstrained binary optimization (qubo).

    The restriction to 128 qubits means that in a single computation you are restricted to solving at most 128 variable qubo problems.

    While it is certainly possible to factor products of prime numbers by recasting factoring as optimization (see sidebar for an example), the chip cannot run Shor’s Algorithm as SA assumes a gate model processor.

    Much is known about the relation between adiabatic and gate models, see for example http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0405098. However it is true that much remains unclear about the performance of adiabatic approaches on NP-hard problems. Lots of smart folks are working on this now, see for example http://www.rle.mit.edu/xqit/research_01.htm . This latter is also the focus of our AQUA@home project http://aqua.dwavesys.com/ .

    So public key encryption is safe (for now).

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